Learn More. The Peer-to-Peer request must be received by Maryland Amerigroup maryland prior authorization Care within two 2 business days of the initial notification of the denial. The intent of the Peer-to-Peer is to discuss the denial decision with the ordering clinician or attending physician. For specific details prioe authorization requirements, please refer to our Quick Reference Guide. Certain carefirst mental providers require prior authorization regardless of place of service.
I'm hoping Juniper is either formulating some sort of attack strategy right now, or trying to gather together all the clients who are affected by this. Intel in January disclosed that its low-powered Atom C chips contained a clock flaw issue, according to a document on its web site. The document said the Low Pin Count LPC clock outputs could stop working causing systems with the faulty processors to no longer be able to boot up.
An Intel spokesperson declined to say which vendors' products include the component, saying it doesn't comment about other companies. The spokesperson said the issue with the C chips "has been identified, root caused and there are immediate fixes available.
Mark Haranas is an assistant news editor and longtime journalist now covering cloud, multicloud, software, SaaS and channel partners at CRN. He can be reached at mharanas thechannelcompany. Intel Corporation Juniper Networks, Inc.
Share this. Learn More: Juniper Networks clock signal component component issue Cisco product replacement Juniper. Mark Haranas Mark Haranas is an assistant news editor and longtime journalist now covering cloud, multicloud, software, SaaS and channel partners at CRN. TO TOP. Apply For Tech Elite. The show chassis synchronization extensive command displays the frequency plane status.
The show ptp hybrid status command displays the hybrid combined status of frequency and phase plane status. In hybrid mode, the show ptp hybrid status and show ptp lock-status commands indicate the lock status as Phase Aligned in the output. You can use the show ptp hybrid status operational command to find the current operating mode. However, the show chassis synchronization extensive operational mode command output displays the lock status that is derived from the EEC located on the SCB.
The hybrid operation over LAG is supported only when primary and secondary Synchronous Ethernet interfaces are present on the same line card. When acting as PTP slaves, MXP routers can accept any external Synchronous Ethernet clock as reference and do not support building-integrated timing supply BITS input as frequency source in hybrid mode of operation.
Only Synchronous Ethernet sources are allowed in hybrid mode. Note that when the selected Synchronous Ethernet reference fails, the router continues to work in PTP mode. To switch between PTP and Synchronous Ethernet modes, you must first deactivate the configuration for the current mode and then commit the configuration. Wait for 30 seconds and then configure the new mode and its related parameters, and then commit the configuration. Keep the following points in mind while configuring hybrid mode on ACX Series routers:.
To achieve phase accuracy of less than 1. Hybrid mode is supported in a ring topology. By enabling the hybrid mode, the convergence time period is reduced and locking happens quickly.
When you enable hybrid mode, each node generates a phase error of or plus or minus nanoseconds without Phy Timestamping or plus or minus 50 nanoseconds with Phy timestamping feature. The hybrid feature on aggregated Ethernet ae- interfaces is not supported.
The best of configured chassis synchronization sources is selected by the synchronization source selection algorithm. During the boot-up process, if valid sources are configured at the [edit chassis synchronization] hierarchy level and chassis synchronization mode in free-running mode, valid PTP source available case, system continues to operate in hybrid mode In this case, chassis synchronization is in free-run mode, whereas PTP is in locked mode.
When both primary and secondary frequency sources fail, system still works under hybrid mode In this case, chassis synchronization is in hybrid mode and PTP is in locked mode. Help us improve your experience.
Let us know what you think. Do you have time for a two-minute survey? Maybe Later. Note: Router clocks are categorized based on the role of the router in the network.
Mote A mote is a micro-sensor. Multi-Beam e-Beam Lithography An advanced form of e-beam lithography. Concurrent analysis holds promise. Multi-site testing Using a tester to test multiple dies at the same time.
Multi-Vt Use of multi-threshold voltage devices. Multipath Propagation When a signal is received via different paths and dispersed over time. Multiple Patterning A way to image IC designs at 20nm and below.
MXenes A durable and conductive material of two-dimensional inorganic compounds in thin atomic layers. Nanoimprint Lithography A hot embossing process type of lithography. Nanosheet FET A type of field-effect transistor that uses wider and thicker wires than a lateral nanowire.
Near Threshold Computing Optimizing power by computing below the minimum operating voltage. Near-Memory Computing Moving compute closer to memory to reduce access costs. Neural Networks A method of collecting data from the physical world that mimics the human brain.
Neuromorphic Computing A compute architecture modeled on the human brain. Nodes Nodes in semiconductor manufacturing indicate the features that node production line can create on an integrated circuit, such as interconnect pitch, transistor density, transistor type, and other new technology.
Noise Random fluctuations in voltage or current on a signal. Off-chip communications. On-chip communications. Operand Isolation Disabling datapath computation when not enabled. Optical Inspection Method used to find defects on a wafer. Optical Lithography. Original Equipment Manufacturer OEM The company that buys raw goods, including electronics and chips, to make a product.
Overlay The ability of a lithography scanner to align and print various layers accurately on top of each other. Packaging How semiconductors get assembled and packaged. PAM-4 Signaling A high-speed signal encoding technique. Patents A patent is an intellectual property right granted to an inventor.
Pellicle A thin membrane that prevents a photomask from being contaminated. Phase-Change Memory Memory that stores information in the amorphous and crystalline phases. Photomask A template of what will be printed on a wafer. Photoresist Light-sensitive material used to form a pattern on the substrate. Physical Design Design and implementation of a chip that takes physical placement, routing and artifacts of those into consideration.
Physical Verification Making sure a design layout works as intended. Picocells A small cell that is slightly higher in power than a femtocell. Pin Swapping Lowering capacitive loads on logic. Power Consumption Components of power consumption. Power Cycle Sequencing Power domain shutdown and startup. Power Definitions Definitions of terms related to power. Power Estimation How is power consumption estimated. Power Gating Reducing power by turning off parts of a design.
Power Gating Retention Special flop or latch used to retain the state of the cell when its main power supply is shut off. Power Isolation Addition of isolation cells around power islands.
Power Issues Power reduction at the architectural level. Power Management Coverage Ensuring power control circuitry is fully verified. Power Management IC PMIC An integrated circuit that manages the power in an electronic device or module, including any device that has a battery that gets recharged.
Power Supply Noise Noise transmitted through the power delivery network. Power Switching Controlling power for power shutoff. Power Techniques. Power-Aware Design Techniques that analyze and optimize power in a design. Power-Aware Test Test considerations for low-power circuitry. Private Cloud Data centers and IT infrastructure for data storage and computing that a company owns or subscribes to for use only by that company.
Process Power Optimizations power optimization techniques at the process level. Process Variation Variability in the semiconductor manufacturing process.
Processor Utilization A measurement of the amount of time processor core s are actively in use. Processors An integrated circuit or part of an IC that does logic and math processing. Property Specification Language Verification language based on formal specification of behavior.
Public Cloud Data storage and computing done in a data center, through a service offered by a cloud service provider, and accessed on the public Internet. Quantum Computing A different way of processing data using qubits. Random Telegraph Noise Random trapping of charge carriers. Rare Earth Elements Critical metals used in electronics. Recurrent Neural Network RNN An artificial neural network that finds patterns in data using other data stored in memory.
Redistribution Layers RDLs Copper metal interconnects that electrically connect one part of a package to another. Reliability Verification Design verification that helps ensure the robustness of a design and reduce susceptibility to premature or catastrophic electrical failures.
Reticle Synonymous with photomask. Rich Interactive Test Database RITdb A proposed test data standard aimed at reducing the burden for test engineers and test operations. Root of Trust Trusted environment for secure functions. RVM Verification methodology based on Vera. SAT Solver Algorithm used to solve problems. Scan Test Additional logic that connects registers into a shift register or scan chain for increased test efficiency.
Scoreboard Mechanism for storing stimulus in testbench. Semiconductor Manufacturing Subjects related to the manufacture of semiconductors. Semiconductor Security Methods and technologies for keeping data safe.
Sensor Fusion Combining input from multiple sensor types. Sensors Sensors are a bridge between the analog world we live in and the underlying communications infrastructure. Shift Left In semiconductor development flow, tasks once performed sequentially must now be done concurrently. Shmooing, Shmoo test, Shmoo plot Sweeping a test condition parameter through a range and obtaining a plot of the results.
Short Channel Effects When channel lengths are the same order of magnitude as depletion-layer widths of the source and drain, they cause a number of issues that affect design. Shot Noise Quantization noise.
Side Channel Attacks A class of attacks on a device and its contents by analyzing information using different access methods. Silicon Photonics The integration of photonic devices into silicon. Simulation A simulator exercises of model of hardware. Simulation Acceleration Special purpose hardware used to accelerate the simulation process. Simultaneous Switching Noise Disturbance in ground voltage.
Small Cells Wireless cells that fill in the voids in wireless infrastructure. Software-Driven Verification Verification methodology utilizing embedded processors. Spread Spectrum A secure method of transmitting data wirelessly. Standard Essential Patent A patent that has been deemed necessary to implement a standard.
Standards Standards are important in any industry. Stimulus Constraints Constraints on the input to guide random generation process. Substrate Biasing Use of Substrate Biasing. Substrate Noise Coupling through the substrate. Switches Network switches route data packet traffic inside the network.
System on Chip SoC A system on chip SoC is the integration of functions necessary to implement an electronic system onto a single substrate and contains at least one processor.
SystemVerilog Industry standard design and verification language. Testbench Software used to functionally verify a design. Thermal Noise Noise related to heat. Transistors Basic building block for both analog and digital integrated circuits. Transition Rate Buffering Minimizing switching times. Triple Patterning A multi-patterning technique that will be required at 10nm and below. UL — Standard for Safety for the Evaluation of Autonomous Products Standard for safety analysis and evaluation of autonomous vehicles.
Unified Coverage Interoperability Standard Verification The Unified Coverage Interoperability Standard UCIS provides an application programming interface API that enables the sharing of coverage data across software simulators, hardware accelerators, symbolic simulations, formal tools or custom verification tools.
User Interfaces User interfaces is the conduit a human uses to communicate with an electronics device. Utility Patent Patent to protect an invention. Vera Hardware Verification Language. Verification Methodologies A standardized way to verify integrated circuit designs.
Verification Plan A document that defines what functional verification is going to be performed. Verilog Hardware Description Language in use since Verilog Procedural Interface Procedural access to Verilog objects. Virtual Prototype An abstract model of a hardware system enabling early software execution. VMM Verification methodology built by Synopsys. Volatile Memory Memory that loses storage abilities when power is removed. Voltage Islands Use of multiple voltages for power reduction.
Von Neumann Architecture The basic architecture for most computing today, based on the principle that data needs to move back and forth between a processor and memory. Wafer Fab Testing Verifying and testing the dies on the wafer after the manufacturing. Wafer Inspection The science of finding defects on a silicon wafer. Wired communications Wired communication, which passes data through wires between devices, is still considered the most stable form of communication.
Wireless A way of moving data without wires. X Architecture IC interconnect architecture. X Verification X Propagation causes problems.
Aart de Geus. Adam Kablanian. Aditya Mittal. Adnan Hamid. Adrian Simionescu. Ahmed Hemani. Ajay Daga. Ajoy K. Akash Deshpande. Aki Fujimura. Al Akermann. Alain Fanet. Alain J. Alakesh Chetia. Alan Scott. Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli. Alex Alexanian. Alexander Samoylov. Alisa Yaffa. Allan Douglas. Amir Zarkesh. Amit Gupta. Amit Mehrotra. Amit Narayan. Amit Saxena. Amr Mohsen. An-Chang Deng. An-Yu Kuo.
Anant Agarwal. Andrea Casotto. Andreas Ripp. Andreas Veneris. Andrei Tcherniaev. Andrew Hughes. Andrew T. Andrzej Strojwas. Andy Chou. Andy Goodrich. Andy Huang. Andy Ladd. Andy Lin. Ange Aznar.
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Bing Yeh. Bob Flatt. Bob Hunter. Bob Quinn. Borgar Ljosland. Boris Gruzman. Brad Quinton. Brian Davenpoort. Bruce M. Bryan Hoyer. Carson Bradbury. Carver Mead. Char Devich. Charles Edelstenne. Charles Evans. Charles J. Chuck Abronson. Charlie Cheng. Charlie Huang. Cheng Wang. Chenming Hu. Chi-Lai Huang. Ching-Chao Huang. Chioumin Michael Chang. Chong Ming Frank Lin. Chouki Aktouf. Chris Schalick. Chris Wilson. Chris Curry. Chris Rosebrugh.
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David R. David Stamm. David Stewart. David Yao. Davorin Mista. Dawson Engler. Dean Drako. Deepak Shankar. Deepak Kumar Tala. Dejan Markovic. Derek King. Devadas Varma. Devesh Guatam. Diana Marculescu. Dirk Lanneer. Dominik Strasser. Don Emil Pezzolo. Don McInnis. Don-Min Tsou. Donald Bennett.
Doug Fairbairn. Drew E. Duncan Bremner. Durga Lakshmi Sangisetti. Ed Blackmond. Edmund K. Edward A. Edward Komp. Edward N. Egino Sarto. Elena Potanina. Eli Yablonovitch. Ellis Smith. Enno Wein. Eric Ryherd. Eric Beisser. Eric Dormer. Eric Dupont. Eric Dupont-Nivet. Eric Peers. Eric T.
Erik Lauwers. Esin Terzioglu. Eun Sei Park. Ewald Detjens. Fadil Kotaji. Fang-Cheng Chang. Fang-Li Yuan. Farakh Javid. Fergus Slorach. Fia Johansson. Firas Mohamed. Founder s Unknown. Francis Bernard. Frank Gennari. Frank Costa. Frank DeRemer. Frank Schenkel. Franz Dugand. Frederic Reblewski. Frederick Fred Saal. Fuad Musa. Fumiaki Sato. Gabi Leshem. Gagan Hasteer. Ganapathy Subramaniam. Gene Dancause. Gene Marsh. Geoffrey Tate. Gerald H. Gerald L Jerry Frenkil. Gerald Pechanek. Gerhard Angst.
Gert Goossens. Ghassan Gus Y. Ghislain Kaiser. Giacinto Paolo Saggese. Gil Winograd. Glen M. Gopa Periyadan. Gopal Krishna Nayak. Gordon B. Gordon Baty. Gordon E. Graham Hellestrand.
Grant A. Greg Doyle. Greg Hoeppner. Greg Lloyd. Greg M. Gregory Recupero. Guido Arnout. Guy Bois. Guy de Burgh. Hal Alles. Hal Conklin. Hamid Savoj. Harald Neubauer. Hardeep Gulati. Harm Arts. HarnHua Ng. Harvey C. Jones jr. Hayder Mrabet. Hazem El Tahawy.
Hein van der Wildt. Heinrich Meyr. Helmut Mahr. Henrik Pallisgaard. Henry Cox. Hermann Hauser. Hiro Moriyasu. Holly Stump. Howard L. Howard Pakosh. Ian Lankshear. Ian Page. Ian Tsybulkin.
Ihao Chen. Ivan Pesic. Eric Bracken. George Janac. Jack Herrick. Jack Harding. Jack Little. Jack Peng. Jacob Ben-Meir. James Jim Fiske. James Jim Ready. James B. James C. James E. Jim Solomon. James G. James Girand. James Truchard. James V Barnett II. Jamsheed Agahi. Janak H. Jane Karwoski McCracken. Jason Campbell. Jason Cong. Jason Xing.
Jauher Zaidi. Jaushin Lee. Jay Avula. Jean Barbier. Jean Brouwers. Jean-Luc Pelloie. Jean-Philippe Lambert. Jean-Pierre Appel. Jean-Pierre Lecailliez. Jean-Yves Brena. Jeff Fox. Jeff Bier. Jeff Galloway. Jeff Kodosky. Jeff Tuan. Jens C. Jens J. Tybo Jensen. Jens P. Jeong-Tyng Li. Jeremy Birch. Jerome Vanthournout. Jesper Knudsen. Jez San. Jian X.
Jim McCanny. Jim Sansbury. Jinsong Zhao. Joe Higgins. Joe Tanous. Joe Tatham. Joerg Grosse. Joey Y. Johan Van Praet. Johan Peeters. Johann Foucher. Johannes Emigholz. John Gilbert. John A. John Charles Carveth. John Croix. John Durbetaki. John F. John Goodenough. John Halfpenny. John Hall. John Hatfield. John K. John Lee. John Lofton Holt.
John Maneatis. John Mills. John Ott. John R. John Sanguinetti. John Tanner. Johnathan Weiss. Johnson Limqueco. Jonathan Cagan. Jonathan Rose. Jordan Swartz. Joseph Skazinski. Joseph B. Joseph E. Joseph Lee. Joseph Rothman. Josh Lee. Juliusz Poltz. Jun-Jyeh Hsiao. Charles Janac.
Kaiwin Lee. Kamran Elahian. Kannankote Sriram. Karel Masarik. Karen Vahtra. Kaushik I. Kavitha Tala. Keith Short. Keith Seymour. Keith Whisnant. Ken McElvain. Ken Matusow. Ken Seymour. The NPU session table contains an entry for a session if the session is established on an SPU for a packet that had previously entered the device via the interface and was processed by this NPU.
An NPU determines if a session exists for a packet by checking the packet information against its session table. SPUs establish and manage traffic flows and perform most of the packet processing on a packet as it transits the device. The SPU applies stateless firewall filters, classifiers, and traffic shapers to traffic. An SPU performs all flow-based processing for a packet and most packet-based processing. It also checks its session table when it receives a packet from the distributed central point and sends a message to establish a session for that packet to verify that there is not an existing session for the packet.
Central point—The central point architecture is divided into two modules, the application central point and the distributed central point. The application central point is responsible for global resource management and loading balancing, while the distributed central point is responsible for traffic identification global session matching.
The application central point functionality runs on the dedicated central point SPU, while the distributed central point functionality is distributed to the rest of the SPUs. Now the central point sessions are no longer on the dedicated central point SPU, but with the distributed central point on other flow SPUs.
This section describes the process of establishing a session for packets belonging to a flow that transits the device. This section explains how a session is set up to process the packets composing a flow.
The NPU checks its session table for an existing session for the packet. NPU1 checks its session table for a tuple match, and no existing session is found. The distributed central point then looks up the distributed central point session table and creates an entry if needed. The distributed central point checks its session table to determine if a session exists for the packet received from the NPU.
An NPU forwards a packet to the distributed central point because it cannot find an existing session for the packet. If there is no entry that matches the packet in the distributed central point session table, the distributed central point creates a pending wing for the session. The distributed central point then sends a query message to the application central point to select an SPU to be used for the session. On receiving the query message, the application central point checks its gate table to determine if a gate exists for the packet.
If a gate is matched or some other session distribution algorithm is triggered, the application central point selects another SPU to process the packet; otherwise, the SPU that is, the distributed central point SPU is selected.
Finally, the application central point sends a query response to the distributed central point. On receiving the query response, the distributed central point forwards the first packet in flow to the selected SPU in a message directing the SPU to set up a session locally to be used for the packet flow. The application central point selects SPU1 to be used for it. It selects SPU1 to be used for it. When the SPU receives a message from the distributed central point to set up a session, it checks its session table to ensure that a session does not already exist for the packet.
The SPU sends a message to the distributed central point directing it to install the session. The distributed central point installs the reverse wing for the session as an active wing. For some cases, such as NAT, the reverse wing may be installed on a different distributed central point from the init wing distributed central point. Session information is set up on the egress and ingress NPUs which sometimes are the same so that packets can be sent directly to the SPU that manages their flows and not to the distributed central point for redirection.
For the remainder of the steps entailed in packet processing, proceed to Step 1 in Understanding Fast-Path Processing. Figure 6 illustrates the first part of the process that the first packet in a flow undergoes after it reaches the device. At this point a session is set up to process the packet and the rest of the packets belonging to its flow.
Subsequently, it and the rest of the packets in the flow undergo fast-path processing. The NPU performs sanity checks and applies some screens, such as denial-of-service DoS screens, to the packet. The NPU identifies an entry for an existing session in its session table that the packet matches.
NPU1 performs sanity checks on the packet, applies DoS screens to it, and checks its session table for a tuple match. It finds a match and that a session exists for the packet on SPU1.
The packet is processed for packet-based features such as stateless firewall filters, traffic shapers, and classifiers, if applicable.
Configured flow-based security and related services such as firewall features, NAT, ALGs, and so on, are applied to the packet. For information on how security services are determined for a session. Before it processes the packet, the SPU checks its session table to verify that the packet belongs to one of its sessions. SPU1 checks its session table to verify that the packet belongs to one of its sessions.
If any are configured, it applies output filters, traffic shapers and additional screens to the packet. NPU2 checks its session table for a tuple match. This step is the same as Step 2 except that it applies to reverse traffic. See Step 2 in this section for details. It checks its session table to verify that the packet belongs to the session identified by NPU2. This step is the same as Step 3 except that it applies to reverse traffic.
See Step 3 in this section for details. NPU1 processes any screens configured for the interface. This step is the same as Step 4 except that it applies to reverse traffic. See Step 4 in this section for details. Figure 7 illustrates the process a packet undergoes when it reaches the device and a session exists for the flow that the packet belongs to. For a given physical interface, the SPU receives ingress packets from all network processors in the network processor bundle associated with the physical interface.
The SPU extracts network processor bundle information from the physical interface and uses the same 5-tuple hash algorithm to map a flow to a network processor index. To determine the network processor, the SPU does a lookup on the network processor index in the network processor bundle.
The network processor and the SPU use the same 5-tuple hash algorithm to get the hash values for the packets. IFL — The configuration of the network processor bundle is stored in the physical interface data structure.
On SRX line devices, the iflset functionality is not supported for aggregated interfaces like reth. IFD — The logical interface associated with the physical interface of a network processor bundle is passed to all the IOCs that have a PIM in the network processor bundle. The network processor bundling feature is available on SRX line devices. This feature enables distribution of data traffic from one interface to multiple network processors for packet processing.
A primary network processor is assigned for an interface that receives the ingress traffic and distributes the packets to several other secondary network processors.
A single network processor can act as a primary network processor or as a secondary network processor to multiple interfaces. A single network processor can join only one network processor bundle. Network processor bundling allows a total of 16 PIMs per bundle and 8 different network processor bundle systems.
Network processor bundling is below the reth interface in the overall architecture. You can choose one or both interfaces from the network processor bundle to form the reth interface.
Packets are distributed to multiple network processors for processing. These thresholds apply to each network processor in the network processor bundle. Because of memory constraints on the network processor, the number of network processor bundled ports that are supported per PIM is limited. Within the network processor bundle, each port needs to have a global port index. The global port index is calculated using the following formula:.
Link aggregation groups LAGs and redundant Ethernet interface LAGs in chassis cluster implementations can coexist with network processor bundling. When you configure the mapping, the chassis process will first use your configuration, then apply the least-number NPC algorithm for the rest of the IOCs.
See Table 1 for a description of the set chassis ioc-npc-connectivity options. Specify the IOC slot number. Specify the NPC slot number. The chassis process maps the connection for the particular IOC. You must restart the chassis control after you commit the set chassis ioc-npc-connectivity command. The SPC3 card supports higher throughput, maintains its reliability as it preserves the chassis cluster functionality and scalability for service processing.
Application layer gateway ALG. Application security suite. High availability chassis cluster. Intrusion detection and prevention IDP. Network address translation NAT. SSL proxy. Firewall user authentication. UTM antivirus, web filtering, content filtering, and antispam. The security flow is enhanced to support SPC3 card with all the existing security features that are supported on the SPC2 card.
Starting in Junos OS Release The introduction of the new card improves the scalability and performance of the device and maintains its reliability as it preserves the chassis cluster functionality.
The SPC3 card supports higher throughput and scalability for service processing. The SPC3 card is installed in the original lowest-numbered slot provides the central point CP functionality in mixed-mode. This configuration ensures that the central point CP functionality in mixed-mode is performed by the SPC3 card.
The way the IOC hashes the packets to process the flow is changed. The packets are now delivered to the flowd thread instead of SPU. All packets that come through a revenue port will be distributed to different SPUs based on hash algorithm, which is same as the existing SRX Line devices hash based on CP-Lite architecture.
The hash method varies for different types of traffic. The table below lists hash methods. The packets that pass the NP session has the following advantages:. Service offload is a special type of NP session to provide low-latency feature for session that needs basic firewall service. The following traffic types support service offload:. J-Flow is the juniper version of industry standard traffic monitoring mechanism.
It provides a feature to export snapshot of network traffic statistics to the remote server for network monitoring and further data processing. J-Flow supports v5, v8 and v9 format. All these three versions are supported on SPC3. It traces packet path and dump packet content.
After receiving a fragmented packet, flow performs defragmentation and forwards the packet to its session core. The flow logic does not change and remains the same. Basically, two ISHU operations are supported:. Help us improve your experience.
Let us know what you think. Do you have time for a two-minute survey? Maybe Later. Understanding Traffic Processing on Security Devices Junos OS for security devices integrates the world-class network security and routing capabilities of Juniper Networks. This topic includes the following sections: Understanding Flow-Based Processing Understanding Packet-Based Processing Understanding Flow-Based Processing A packet undergoes flow-based processing after packet-based filters and some screens have been applied to it.
Zones and Policies The security policy to be used for the first packet of a flow is cached in a flow table for use with the same flow and closely related flows. Flows and Sessions Flow-based packet processing, which is stateful, requires the creation of sessions. A session is created for the first packet of a flow for the following purposes: To store most of the security measures to be applied to the packets of the flow.
To cache information about the state of the flow. To allocate required resources for the flow for features such as NAT. To provide a framework for features such as ALGs and firewall features. Most packet processing occurs in the context of a flow, including: Management of policies, NAT, zones, and most screens. Management of ALGs and authentication. Understanding Packet-Based Processing A packet undergoes packet-based processing when it is removed from the queue on its input interface and before it is added to the queue on its output interface.
Class-of-Service Features CoS features allow you to classify and shape traffic. Screens Some screens, such as denial-of-service DoS screens, are applied to a packet outside the flow process. Understanding the Default Processing Behavior for IPv4 Traffic Flow-based processing mode is required for security features such as zones, screens, and firewall policies to function.
Note: For drop mode processing, the traffic is dropped directly, it is not forwarded. Understanding Session Creation In setting up the session, the SPU executes the following services for the packet: Screens Route lookup Policy lookup Service lookup NAT, if required After a session is set up, it is used for all packets belonging to the flow. Understanding Fast-Path Processing If a packet matches a session, Junos OS performs fast-path processing as described in the following steps.
The SPU applies flow-based security features to the packet. Configured screens are applied. TCP checks are performed. The SPU prepares the packet for forwarding and transmits it. Routing packet filters are applied. Traffic shaping is applied. Traffic prioritizing is applied. Traffic scheduling is applied. The packet is transmitted. The following sections describe the processing architecture using SRX and SRX devices as an example: This topic includes the following information:.
Understanding Session Creation: First Packet Processing This topic explains how a session is set up to process the packets composing a flow. A packet arrives at an interface on the device and the IOC processes it. This process entails the following parts: The central point checks its session table and gate table to determine if a session or a gate exists for the packet it receives from the NPU.
The SPU sets up the session. If there is no existing session for the packet, the SPU sets up the session locally. The SPU sends a message to the central point, telling it to install the session.
The central point installs the session. It installs the reverse wing for the session as an active wing. Fast-path processing takes place. Understanding Fast-Path Processing All packets undergo fast-path processing. This topic includes the following content:. It is often used to protect the data center edge and core in the following ways: Deploying the SRX Services Gateway as a Data Center Edge Firewall You can deploy the SRX Services Gateway at the edge of your data center to provide the applications and services that it hosts with optimum protection.
Understanding First-Packet Processing If the packet matches an existing flow, processing for the packet is assessed in the context of its flow state.
Figure 4: First-Packet Processing. Figure 5: Fast-Path Processing. Routing Engine—The Routing Engine runs the control plane. Understanding the Data Path for Unicast Sessions This section describes the process of establishing a session for packets belonging to a flow that transits the device. Understanding Session Creation: First-Packet Processing This section explains how a session is set up to process the packets composing a flow.
Step 1. Step 2. This process entails the following parts: The distributed central point checks its session table to determine if a session exists for the packet received from the NPU.
An NPU forwards a packet to the distributed central point because it cannot find an existing session for the packet If there is no entry that matches the packet in the distributed central point session table, the distributed central point creates a pending wing for the session.
Step 3. Step 4. The distributed central point receives the install message from the SPU. Note: For some cases, such as NAT, the reverse wing may be installed on a different distributed central point from the init wing distributed central point.
Step 5. Step 6. Fast-Path Processing Takes Place. The SPU processes the packet for applicable features and services. The NPU applies any applicable screens associated with the interface to the packet. The Interface Transmits the Packet from the Device. This step mirrors Step 1 exactly in reverse. See Step 1 in this section for details. Step 7. Understanding Services Processing Units For a given physical interface, the SPU receives ingress packets from all network processors in the network processor bundle associated with the physical interface.
Note: The network processor and the SPU use the same 5-tuple hash algorithm to get the hash values for the packets. Network Processor Bundling Limitations Network processor bundling functionality has the following limitations: Network processor bundling allows a total of 16 PIMs per bundle and 8 different network processor bundle systems. You need to reboot the device to apply the configuration changes on the bundle.
Network processor bundling is not supported in Layer 2 mode.
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